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windroseMap() creates a leaflet map using wind roses as markers. Multiple layers of markers can be added and toggled between using control.


  data, = 2,
  breaks = 4,
  latitude = NULL,
  longitude = NULL,
  control = NULL,
  popup = NULL,
  label = NULL,
  provider = "OpenStreetMap",
  cols = "turbo",
  alpha = 1,
  key = FALSE,
  draw.legend = TRUE,
  collapse.control = FALSE,
  d.icon = 200,
  d.fig = 3.5,
  type = deprecated(),



A data frame. The data frame must contain the data to plot a openair::windRose(), which includes wind speed (ws), and wind direction (wd). In addition, data must include a decimal latitude and longitude.

The wind speed interval. Default is 2 m/s but for low met masts with low mean wind speeds a value of 1 or 0.5 m/s may be better.


Most commonly, the number of break points for wind speed in windRose. For windRose and the default of 2 m/s, the default, 4, generates the break points 2, 4, 6, 8 m/s. Breaks can also be used to set specific break points. For example, the argument breaks = c(0, 1, 10, 100) breaks the data into segments <1, 1-10, 10-100, >100.

latitude, longitude

The decimal latitude/longitude. If not provided, will be automatically inferred from data by looking for a column named "lat"/"latitude" or "lon"/"lng"/"long"/"longitude" (case-insensitively).


Used for splitting the input data into different groups which can be selected between using a "layer control" interface, passed to the type argument of openair::cutData(). control cannot be used if multiple pollutant columns have been provided.


Columns to be used as the HTML content for marker popups. Popups may be useful to show information about the individual sites (e.g., site names, codes, types, etc.). If a vector of column names are provided they are passed to buildPopup() using its default values.


Column to be used as the HTML content for hover-over labels. Labels are useful for the same reasons as popups, though are typically shorter.


The base map(s) to be used. See for a list of all base maps that can be used. If multiple base maps are provided, they can be toggled between using a "layer control" interface. By default, the interface will use the provider names as labels, but users can define their own using a named vector (e.g., c("Default" = "OpenStreetMap", "Satellite" = "Esri.WorldImagery"))


The colours used for plotting. See openair::openColours() for more information.


The alpha transparency to use for the plotting surface (a value between 0 and 1 with zero being fully transparent and 1 fully opaque).


Should a key for each marker be drawn? Default is FALSE.


Should a shared legend be created at the side of the map? Default is TRUE.


Should the "layer control" interface be collapsed? Defaults to FALSE.


The diameter of the plot on the map in pixels. This will affect the size of the individual polar markers. Alternatively, a vector in the form c(width, height) can be provided if a non-circular marker is desired.


The diameter of the plots to be produced using openair in inches. This will affect the resolution of the markers on the map. Alternatively, a vector in the form c(width, height) can be provided if a non-circular marker is desired.


[Deprecated]. Different sites are now automatically detected based on latitude and longitude. Please use label and/or popup to label different sites.


Arguments passed on to openair::windRose


Name of the column representing wind speed.


Name of the column representing wind direction.


The user can supply a second set of wind speed and wind direction values with which the first can be compared. See pollutionRose() for more details.


Default angle of “spokes” is 30. Other potentially useful angles are 45 and 10. Note that the width of the wind speed interval may need adjusting using width.


When angle does not divide exactly into 360 a bias is introduced in the frequencies when the wind direction is already supplied rounded to the nearest 10 degrees, as is often the case. For example, if angle = 22.5, N, E, S, W will include 3 wind sectors and all other angles will be two. A bias correction can made to correct for this problem. A simple method according to Applequist (2012) is used to adjust the frequencies.


Grid line interval to use. If NULL, as in default, this is assigned based on the available data range. However, it can also be forced to a specific value, e.g. grid.line = 10. grid.line can also be a list to control the interval, line type and colour. For example grid.line = list(value = 10, lty = 5, col = "purple").


For paddle = TRUE, the adjustment factor for width of wind speed intervals. For example, width = 1.5 will make the paddle width 1.5 times wider.


When paddle = TRUE, seg determines with width of the segments. For example, seg = 0.5 will produce segments 0.5 * angle.


Either TRUE (default) or FALSE. If TRUE titles and axis labels will automatically try and format pollutant names and units properly, e.g., by subscripting the ‘2’ in NO2.


The size of the 'hole' in the middle of the plot, expressed as a percentage of the polar axis scale, default 10.


If TRUE each wind direction segment is normalised to equal one. This is useful for showing how the concentrations (or other parameters) contribute to each wind sector when the proportion of time the wind is from that direction is low. A line showing the probability that the wind directions is from a particular wind sector is also shown.


Controls the scaling used by setting the maximum value for the radial limits. This is useful to ensure several plots use the same radial limits.


Either TRUE or FALSE. If TRUE plots rose using 'paddle' style spokes. If FALSE plots rose using 'wedge' style spokes.


Adds additional text/labels above the scale key. For example, passing windRose(mydata, key.header = "ws") adds the addition text as a scale header. Note: This argument is passed to drawOpenKey() via quickText(), applying the auto.text argument, to handle formatting.


Adds additional text/labels below the scale key. See key.header for further information.


Location where the scale key is to plotted. Allowed arguments currently include “top”, “right”, “bottom” and “left”.


The number of significant figures at which scientific number formatting is used in break point and key labelling. Default 5.


Logical. If FALSE (the default), the first interval will be left exclusive and right inclusive. If TRUE, the first interval will be left and right inclusive. Passed to the include.lowest argument of cut().


The statistic to be applied to each data bin in the plot. Options currently include “prop.count”, “prop.mean” and “abs.count”. The default “prop.count” sizes bins according to the proportion of the frequency of measurements. Similarly, “prop.mean” sizes bins according to their relative contribution to the mean. “abs.count” provides the absolute count of measurements in each bin.


Alternative data series to be sampled instead of wind speed. The windRose() default NULL is equivalent to pollutant = "ws". Use in pollutionRose().


The scale is by default shown at a 315 degree angle. Sometimes the placement of the scale may interfere with an interesting feature. The user can therefore set angle.scale to another value (between 0 and 360 degrees) to mitigate such problems. For example angle.scale = 45 will draw the scale heading in a NE direction.


Border colour for shaded areas. Default is no border.


A leaflet object.

See also

the original openair::windRose()

windroseMapStatic() for the static ggmap equivalent of windroseMap()

Other interactive directional analysis maps: annulusMap(), diffMap(), freqMap(), percentileMap(), polarMap(), pollroseMap()


if (FALSE) {
  provider = "Stamen.Toner"